October 31

834 The first All Hallows Eve was observed by the Roman Catholic Church, established by Pope Gregory IV to honor the saints.

1517 Martin Luther posted his 95 Theses on the door of the Wittenberg Palace Church, marking the start of the Protestant Reformation in Germany.

1908 “Take Me Out To The Ball Game” by Bill Murray & the Haydn Quartet hit Number One on the pop singles chart.

1941 Mount Rushmore was completed. The monument features the faces of Presidents George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln, and Theodore Roosevelt.

1942 “White Christmas” by Bing Crosby hit Number One on the pop singles chart.

1950 Earl Lloyd became the first black man to play in an NBA game when he took the floor for the Washington Capitols. Lloyd was one of three black players who entered the NBA in the 1950 season, the other two being NatSweetwaterClifton of the New York Knicks and Chuck Cooper of the Boston Celtics. Cooper debuted the night after Lloyd.

1968 President Lyndon Johnson ordered a stop to U.S. bombing of North Vietnam.

1984 Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi was assassinated near her residence by two Sikh security guards.

1992 Pope John Paul II formally proclaimed that the Roman Catholic Church was wrong in condemning astronomer Galileo some 350 years ago for saying that the Sun, not the Earth, was at the center of the universe.

1999 EgyptAir Flight 990 crashed off the Massachusetts coast, killing all 217 people aboard. Although U.S. authorities believe the plane’s co-pilot intentionally brought the aircraft down, Egypt has refused to accept the explanation.