July 28

1868 The Fourteenth Amendment, guaranteeing due process of law and citizenship to African Americans was declared in effect.

1896 Miami, Florida, was incorporated with a population of 260.

1907 Tupperware inventor Earl S. Tupper is born. He dies in 1983.

1929 Future first lady Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy Onassis is born. She dies in 1994.

1945 A U.S. Army B-25 bomber crashed into the 79th floor of the fog-shrouded Empire State Building in New York City. Fourteen people were killed.

1949 Original T. Rex percussionist-bassist Steve Peregrine Took is born. He dies in 1980.

1951 The Walt Disney animated movie Alice In Wonderland opens.

1954 On The Waterfront, starring Marlon Brando, opened.

1958 A report is issued stating that listening to rock-and-roll while driving costs money in wasted gas, since the rhythm of the music causes drivers to jiggle the gas pedal.

1962 The movie The Miracle Worker, starring Anne Bancroft and Patty Duke, opens.

1965 President Lyndon Johnson announced he was increasing the number of American troops in South Vietnam from 75,000 to 125,000.

1973 “Shambala” by Three Dog Night peaks at Number Three on the pop chart.

1973 “Smoke On The Water” by Deep Purple peaks at Number Four on the pop chart, where it stays for two weeks.

1973 “Roll Over Beethoven” by the Electric Light Orchestra, a cover of the Chuck Berrysong, peaks at Number 42 on the pop chart.

1973 Chicago VI by Chicago hits Number One on the album chart, where it spends a total of five weeks.

1973 Over 600,000 people attend the then-biggest rock festival in history at the Watkins Glen Raceway in upstate New York to hear the Grateful Dead, the Band, and the Allman Brothers Band.

1976 “Detroit Rock City” b/w “Beth” by Kiss is released.

1978 The movie Hooper, starring Burt ReynoldsJan-Michael VincentSally FieldBrian KeithRobert KleinAdam West, and Terry Bradshaw, opens.

1982 Actor-comedian Andy Kaufman and professional wrestler Jerry The King” Lawler have a physical confrontation on Late Night With David Letterman, when Lawler “slaps” Kaufman out of his chair.

1986 TV tabloid news show A Current Affair debuted.

1991 Dennis Martinez pitched a perfect game as his Montreal Expos beat the Los Angeles Dodgers 2-0.

1994 The Texas Rangers’ Kenny Rogers pitched a perfect game, beating the California Angels 4-0. Rogers’s historic win came three years to the day after baseball’s previous perfect game.

1995 Al Hendrix wins back the rights to his son Jimi Hendrix‘s estate after a two-year legal battle.

1998 Monica Lewinsky is granted immunity from prosecution to testify before a grand jury about her relationship with President Bill Clinton.

2000 Jethro Tull wins the rights to the Internet domain names jethrotull.com and jethro-tull.com from a “cybersquatter” at the World Intellectual Property Organization, but Sting loses his case for sting.com.

2001 Original Styx bassist Chuck Panozzo comes out about his homosexuality and his HIV status at the Human Rights Campaign’s annual dinner in Chicago.

2002 Nine coal miners were rescued after being trapped for three days underground in a Pennsylvania mine.

2002 American racer and cancer survivor Lance Armstrong won his fourth straight Tour De France.