1861 The first transcontinental telegraph message was sent by California’s Justice Stephen J. Field to President Abraham Lincoln.
1901 Anna Edson Taylor, a 43-year-old widow, became the first person to go over Niagara Falls in a barrel and live to tell about it.
1908 Baseball’s anthem, “Take Me Out To The Ballgame,” was introduced by singer Billy Murray.
1929 The stock market crash began on “Black Thursday,” as the Dow Jones dropped 12.8 percent. The market collapsed five days later, starting the Great Depression.
1931 “Scarface” Al Capone was sentenced to 11 years in prison for tax evasion.
1945 The United Nations officially came into existence as its charter took effect.
1947 The term “Cold War” was used for the first time to describe the situation between the U.S. and the Soviet Union, in a speech by American financier and presidential adviser Bernard Baruch to a U.S. Senate committee.
1962 The U.S. blockade of Cuba during the Missile Crisis began under a proclamation signed by President John F. Kennedy.
1989 Zsa Zsa Gabor was sentenced to 72 hours in jail, 120 hours of community service, and nearly $13,000 in fines and court costs for slapping a traffic officer.
2000 New York Yankees pitcher Roger Clemens was fined $50,000 for throwing the jagged barrel of a broken bat in the direction of New York Mets catcher Mike Piazza in the first inning of Game Two of the World Series.
2002 Washington, D.C., sniper suspects John Allen Muhammad and Lee Boyd Malvo were apprehended while asleep at a roadside rest stop in Maryland.